Research on Norwegian solid waste policy and its r

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Research on Norwegian solid waste policy and its reference to China

with the rapid development of China's economy, the problems of resource shortage and environmental degradation have become increasingly apparent. The strategy of sustainable economic development has become a common concern of the government and all sectors of society. At the central Symposium on population, resources and environment held this year, General Secretary Hu Jintao pointed out that the share of exports to emerging countries will also be greatly increased. We should actively develop a circular economy and realize a virtuous cycle of natural ecosystems and social economy. Premier Wen Jiabao also clearly pointed out: we should study and formulate policies and regulations to encourage waste recycling and resource recycling; Establish a recycling system for waste materials and renewable resources in urban and rural areas to improve the recycling rate of resources and the rate of harmless treatment. The speeches of the general secretary and the premier pointed out the direction for the development of China's environmental work, and also emphasized the importance of strengthening waste management, recycling and resource recycling

at present, the situation in this field in China is: on the one hand, there is a great shortage of domestic resources; On the other hand, about 5million tons of waste steel, 200000 tons of waste non-ferrous metals, 14million tons of waste paper and a large number of waste plastics, waste glass, waste electrical appliances and other wastes are not recycled every year, resulting in serious loss of resources, and the recovery rate is only about 40%. In addition, a large amount of waste has also caused environmental problems. At present, China's solid waste stockpile has reached more than 70 trillion tons, occupying 500 million square meters of land, which causes serious practical and potential pollution to soil, groundwater and atmosphere

therefore, it is very important to strengthen the management of solid waste, improve the recycling rate, and study and formulate China's policies and regulations by learning from the advanced practices of other countries

I. Norwegian solid waste policy - development goals and principles

in the autumn of 1999, the Norwegian government submitted to Parliament for the first time a complete report on Norway's overall environmental situation and environmental policy comments - government white paper No. 8 (). The report gives an overall introduction and elaboration of Norway's environmental situation and future development prospects, and comments on environmental policies and puts forward suggestions for improvement. In addition, the white paper also informed the ordinary people who have the right to know about the environmental situation in Norway and conveyed environmental information

in many contents of the environmental report, the waste problem closely related to people's production and life has been placed in a more important position, In the waste part of the report, the government also clearly put forward the strategic goal of "minimizing the negative impact of solid waste that is destructive to human beings and the environment, so the government should formulate policies and measures to ensure the balance between the production of solid waste and its recycling, incineration and landfill treatment to achieve social and economic development". Shortly after the white paper on environmental conditions and policies was submitted, a new white paper on waste policy was submitted as a response to the request of the parliament, and a waste policy that comprehensively introduced waste management was also issued. Pollution control law is its main legal support tool

in the report of the waste policy, the government elaborated the development objectives to be achieved by waste treatment and the basic principles for formulating measures. The specific contents are:

(I) national development goals

in order to achieve targeted management of waste, the government has formulated three national development goals, and is committed to formulating relevant methods and measures for the purpose of these three development goals, so as to ensure that the future work is developed in the direction set by the goals; In addition, the government will report the implementation of this goal to Parliament every year. These three development goals are:

1. The growth rate of waste is much lower than the economic growth rate; We should effectively control the growth of waste, reduce the pollution and damage to the environment, and obtain greater economic and social benefits

2. The amount of waste for final treatment (waste is incinerated or landfilled, not reused) should be commensurate with the level of social, economic and environmental development; Therefore, in 2010, the waste recovery rate should reach 75%, and the final disposal rate of waste is only 25%; Through the evaluation of social and economic evaluation standards, the waste that can be reused as renewable resources or converted into energy through combustion is regarded as the priority treatment method for recycling as renewable resources

3. waste containing chemical hazardous substances should be treated in an appropriate and safe way to avoid environmental pollution and damage to human health

(II) principles for formulating measures

in addition to the above three development goals, the government has also formulated four principles and will formulate corresponding measures and methods on the basis of them. These four principles are:

1. The principle that polluters must pay pollution fees

2. Focus on the principles of "prevention" and "preparation"

3. The principle of socio-economic impact assessment of the proposed governance measures

4. Among the optional measures, choose the principle of low cost

the central competent department will formulate the overall framework of methods and measures in accordance with these four principles, while the regional competent departments can formulate different specific provisions according to the specific conditions of the regions under their jurisdiction

II. Norwegian solid waste policy - measures and methods

Norway's solid waste policy mainly focuses on controlling the amount of waste produced and improving the recovery rate of waste. Therefore, the Norwegian government has adopted a series of measures and methods to reduce damage to the environment and achieve reasonable resource utilization

(I) measures taken by the government to reduce solid waste

the government believes that reducing the amount of waste is not a short-term success, and it must be recognized that the implementation of any measure takes time; But at the same time, we should actively find solutions as soon as possible. Therefore, the government hopes that all sectors of society will actively cooperate, exchange experience and exchange knowledge. To this end, the Norwegian government has done the following work:

1. Invite representatives from industry and commerce, regional competent departments, consumers and environmental organizations to form a committee. Next, I will briefly introduce how to maintain the press at low temperature, and make suggestions and discussions on how to reduce solid waste, so as to find the best solution

2. In terms of Taxation, according to the principle that polluters must pay pollution control fees, the Norwegian government imposes a green environmental protection tax on the use of resources and materials that will cause serious environmental pollution, as well as on the generated waste. The tax rate level is set by the regional competent department under the central setting framework according to the specific situation, and gradually distinguishes the tax rate level according to the type and quantity of waste; Encourage and reward those individuals and enterprises who choose environmental protection solutions. In addition, since January 1, 1999, the Norwegian government has also begun to levy taxes on the final treatment of waste. The tax rate is: 300 kroner per ton of waste for landfill treatment; The basic tax rate of waste for incineration is SEK 75 per ton and the additional tax rate is SEK 225 per ton (the additional tax rate can be reduced with the increase of energy utilization). This tax measure increases the final disposal cost of garbage, so it can control the amount of garbage generated and improve the recovery rate of renewable resources. The method of distinguishing basic tax rate and additional tax rate can improve the energy utilization rate. At the same time, this measure is also an encouragement to reduce the final disposal amount of waste and improve the recovery rate, making it more economically beneficial. Therefore, this measure has played an effective role in reducing the amount of waste and improving the recovery rate of waste

3. the government is also committed to controlling the growth of waste from the perspective of the product itself. For example, environmental protection factors are considered to be added to the compensation regulations in the commodity purchase law. For example, producers can repair damaged goods for consumers free of charge, which will make producers try to prolong the service life of products, and will also encourage consumers to reduce the frequency of commodity replacement to a certain extent, thereby reducing the amount of waste generated; The government is also considering whether there is another better alternative. In addition, the government, together with the Norwegian Design Council, the center for sustainable production and consumption, provides financial support to small and medium-sized enterprises using environmentally friendly materials that are conducive to maintenance and can prolong the life of products. The main disadvantages of these two transmission methods are: regularly adding smooth oil in advance of demand to encourage manufacturers to design and develop products from an environmental perspective; In addition, the government also advocates that small and medium-sized enterprises adopt the concept of environmental protection management, so there will be no worries at home. An important factor of this management method is to minimize waste production. The government actively promotes the use of this environmental protection management method in small and medium-sized enterprises across the country, and encourages and supports companies that use environmental protection management; In addition, the government has also worked with relevant departments to conduct a comprehensive standardized evaluation of products, including indicators such as product quality, service life, materials used and the possibility of maintenance, so as to improve the environmental protection requirements of products, encourage enterprises to consider environmental protection factors in the process of producing products, and the government has also strongly supported the market position of these commodities and helped them expand market space

at the same time, the government is also committed to constantly revising and improving these measures and ensuring that they are mutually coordinated in the specific implementation process

(II) measures and measures taken by the government to improve the recycling rate of waste

in order to improve the recycling and utilization rate of renewable resources, the government has taken special measures for some major wastes and given certain support policies to some markets, mainly including:

1. Recycling decree of electronic and electrical products

Norway is the first country in the world to formulate a recycling decree of electronic and electrical products (EE products), which began on July 1, 1999. The decree stipulates that consumers can send the discarded EE products back to the original distribution points. The dealers cannot restrict the brands and manufacturers when recycling, and classify, store and transport them to special receiving stations or formal treatment stations (waste treatment plants approved by the competent authorities and with operating licenses). In addition, they also notify consumers in their product information and when selling products that they can accept the discarded EE products; Each municipal authority has ensured that there are enough receiving stations for waste EE products in its jurisdiction, and that EE products are properly classified, stored and transported to the receiving stations or treatment plants, and has also introduced the treatment methods of waste EE products in its information materials; Importers and producers collect waste EE products free of charge from dealers and municipal authorities or designated collection stations, and classify, recycle and properly dispose of them. They must report the number and types of EE products they import and produce and EE products they collect, recycle and dispose of to the national pollution control agency or other institutions under the Ministry of environment every year, and prove that they have complied with the regulations through the report, Collect and recycle legally to meet the requirements of the regulations. The decree aims to ensure that 80% of EE waste products are recycled in Norway within five years

2. KFK gas recovery decree

kfk gas will destroy the ozone layer if released into the atmosphere. Norway issued the KFK gas management decree in 1996, which stipulates that dealers have recycling and freezing facilities and hand them over to the regional government free of charge; The regional government has the responsibility to ensure adequate acceptance capacity and safe handling,

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