The inevitable choice of China with the hottest ci

2022-10-15
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Circular economy: China's inevitable choice

as a country whose per capita share of natural resources is less than half of the world average, the recycling rate of China's main resources is also pitifully low. In developed countries, the recycling rate of waste steel, copper and rubber has reached 90%, while in China, the recycling rate of waste steel is only 45%, the recycling rate of waste copper is 30%, and the recycling rate of waste rubber is 40%. For China, which is relatively short of natural resources, it is an inevitable choice to develop circular economy and establish renewable resources industry

the so-called circular economy, explained by Professor yewenhu, director of the China Sustainable Development Research Center of Peking University, refers to the economic growth mode of "resources products renewable resources". It is different from the one-way "resource product waste" linear economy in the traditional industrial society. It exploits and consumes resources with high intensity, and destroys the ecological environment with high intensity. Circular economy can solve the problems of resource shortage and environmental pollution faced by mankind and improve the quality of economic development

resource regeneration is the most critical link to realize circular economy. However, at present, renewable resources in China is far from forming an industry, with small business scale and low efficiency. In Japan, which is also short of resources, the output value of renewable resources industry has reached 48 trillion yen (about 3 trillion yuan), while the total output value of renewable resources utilization in China in 2002 is estimated to be only more than 10 billion yuan

in an interview, relevant experts, government management agencies and relevant business people believed that from the perspective of material properties, most of the waste belongs to renewable resources, but the cost of reducing waste into usable secondary resources is very high and the economy is relatively poor. It is difficult to promote the rapid growth of the industry by simply relying on interest driven. In order to promote China's renewable resources industry, we need government support policies, enterprises' own efforts to become bigger and stronger, and the whole people to establish the awareness of circular economy

the renewable resources industry has a certain public welfare nature, and the government should have the necessary capital investment. From the 1970s to 1980s, in order to support the development of renewable resources industry, the state invested nearly 200 million yuan in technological transformation and equipment renewal. After the withdrawal of the State Administration of materials, the national and local governments have invested little in the renewable resources industry since the 1990s. At present, the equipment of most renewable resources enterprises in China is very old, the large-scale scrap steel processing equipment has hardly increased, the mechanical sorting equipment of waste paper is very few, and most scrap car recycling and dismantling enterprises do not have formal assembly lines and equipment. Due to insufficient investment, it is difficult to carry out scientific research projects. Even if there are scientific research achievements, it is also difficult to promote and apply them due to the lack of supporting funds

Long Shaohai, Secretary General of the China Materials Recycling Association, said that the renewable resources industry in developed countries is not a very profitable industry, and the reason why it can develop into a large-scale industry is to some extent supported by government policies. In Japan, Germany and other countries, the government collects waste disposal fees from enterprises and individuals that produce waste, and sets up a special fund to subsidize waste disposal enterprises. He believes that China can also levy and set up similar funds to subsidize waste treatment enterprises, so that enterprises can be profitable. When exporting color TV sets to Japan, Chinese color TV enterprises have to pay waste disposal fees to the Japanese government, but they don't have to pay for domestic sales

in addition to the support of the government, enterprises engaged in renewable resources should also operate the industry as a large industry with great development prospects and constantly expand the industrial scale. Due to the wide variety of waste materials, classification, treatment, refining and recycling require a lot of equipment investment and scientific research investment. A polymer synthesized by crustacean exoskeleton is imported. From the situation of developed countries, the resource regeneration industry can only achieve profit if it realizes large-scale operation. To realize large-scale operation, it is necessary to scale the recycling system and the processing. Due to the uneven economic development in various parts of China, the merchants who purchase waste products are often driven by interests to resell the received waste products to economically backward areas and enter the circulation field again, resulting in the insufficient supply of renewable raw materials, which makes it difficult to achieve large-scale production. Long Shaohai believes that the state should introduce relevant policies to enforce the scrap period of some products and prevent waste from entering the circulation field, so as to ensure the recycling quantity of waste materials. As for improving the scale of processing, on the one hand, we need to raise the entry threshold of renewable resources industry in terms of capital scale and environmental protection requirements, so as to realize the centralized treatment of waste materials. On the other hand, renewable resources enterprises need to develop and expand the scale of enterprises and realize large-scale production through mergers and acquisitions, attracting investment and other means. In the interview, we learned that many enterprises outside the industry are interested in investing in this field

in addition, manufacturing enterprises such as automobiles and household appliances can also achieve the purpose of large-scale operation by operating resource recycling processing by themselves. Developed countries have basically implemented the principle that whoever produces is responsible for handling. Manufacturers know the characteristics and production process of the materials used in their products best, and recycling is more conducive to recycling processing. In foreign countries, because these enterprises have considered the recycling problem before production, the utilization rate of waste after recycling has gradually increased. For example, the recycling rate of air conditioners in Japan has reached more than 60%. The recycling rate of washing machines, refrigerators and other electrical appliances has also reached more than 50%. This not only recycles available resources, but also saves a lot of costs for enterprise production

experts also called on renewable resources enterprises 0.18 ~ 0.20 to also pay attention to the research and development of related technologies, and cannot rely solely on foreign technologies. On the one hand, due to different national conditions and different waste contents, imported equipment may not adapt to China. Beijing Nangong composting plant is a renewable resource enterprise established by relying on the equipment donated by Germany, and the initial equipment investment is almost free. However, due to the different composition of garbage between China and Germany, the fertilizer produced by German technology is not effective, and the market has not been opened; On the other hand, the cost of foreign technology investment is too high. According to Wang Zhixing, the director of the waste battery treatment plant of Beijing Donghua Xinxing company, if foreign technology is introduced, the investment in treatment equipment alone will need more than 7million yuan, but the total investment in the technology developed in cooperation with domestic scientific research institutions is only 5million yuan. In this way, the factory can make a profit and get a net profit of about 400 yuan per ton of waste batteries

Feng Liang, deputy director of the comprehensive division of the Department of environment and comprehensive utilization of resources of the national development and Reform Commission, believes that the development of renewable resources industry also needs to improve people's understanding of resource regeneration. Since most residents have not yet classified according to resource attributes, the value of elongation will reduce waste disposal with the increase of the moving speed of the electronic tensile testing machine, renewable resources enterprises will pay a large part of the cost to classify waste materials, which will affect the efficiency of enterprises

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